However, it’s estimated that the unemployment rate is eleven% as of a 2014 estimate. Also in that year Turkmenistan imported $5.001 billion in items resulting it being the 121th largest importer in the world. This is $1.986 billion less in imports compared to exports meaning the nation has a optimistic trade steadiness of $1.986 billion. The high origins of imports are Turkey 26.four%, Russia 10.5%, Japan 8.6%, Germany 8.2%, South Korea 7.8%, China 7.2%, Italy 5.2%.
Turkmenistan is constructing a potash plant with annual capacity of two.8 million tonnes of potash fertilizers. It lists gasoline production, consumption, exports as total and likewise divided into international locations.
The government has an absolute monopoly of the media and state TV and radio pump out a gradual stream of propaganda. Constitutional adjustments handed in 2016 prolonged presidential time period limits from 5 to seven years and scrapped the 70-yr age restrict which was the only authorized barrier to Mr Berdymukhamedov remaining in power indefinitely. Following in his predecessor’s footsteps, Mr Berdymukhamedov is an autocratic ruler who has built a personality cult.
Pistachios additionally develop in the Serhetabat district, watered by a tributary of the Morghāb River, at Turkmenistan’s southernmost level. As such, Turkmen is extra closely related to Turkish than it’s to either Uzbek or Kazakh. Russian is the first language of almost one-eighth of the inhabitants and is broadly spoken as a second language, but its use has declined considerably since independence. In 2004 the labor pressure was estimated to include more than 2.3 million employees, forty eight.2 % of whom worked in agriculture, 37.8 % in providers, and 14 percent in trade and construction.
Because the state dominates the economic system, an estimated ninety percent of workers are in effect state workers. Unemployment statistics aren’t obtainable because turkmenistan womens unemployment does not exist officially. It is believed that downsizing the government workforce, which began in 2003, increased unemployment in subsequent years.
One observes that the manufacturing and exports peaked in 2008 and dramatically decreased in 2009. This is due an explosion that occurred within the Central Asia–Center gas pipeline system in April 2009 for which Turkmenistan blamed Gazprom. Russia later restricted its imports to only round 10 bcm, and then 5 bcm. Production and exports started increasing once more from 2010 owing to the opening of the Central Asia–China fuel pipeline.
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The banking system, which was decreased substantially after the 1998 monetary disaster, contains 12 national banks. These establishments have the identical fundamental division of accountability as within the Soviet period, overseen by the Central Bank of Turkmenistan. Lending operations and family savings haven’t been necessary features of this method. Turkmengosstrakh, the state insurance coverage agency, has a whole monopoly of the very small insurance industry.
Between 1991 and 2004, some 14 new cotton-processing crops had been opened, sharply growing the capability of processing domestically produced cotton. The building business relies upon primarily on authorities constructing tasks as a result of construction of personal housing is a low precedence.
Supplies to Iran were cancelled in early 2017, with Ashgabat claiming Tehran owed some $1.eight billion for supplies delivered nearly 10 years before. This export was beneath centralised control, and a lot of the export revenue was absorbed into the Soviet central price range. In the post-Soviet era, Turkmenistan’s industrial sector has been dominated increasingly by the gasoline and cotton processing industries to the detriment of sunshine industry.
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While Bulgaria is commonly described as a patriarchal society, women could have substantial authority in family budgeting or agricultural choice making. Despite decades of socialist ideology of gender equality, women are sometimes employed in decrease paying jobs, remain liable for most household chores, and characterize greater than half the registered unemployed. In 1996, fewer than 14 % of postsocialist parliamentary representatives have been women, and just one in five municipal councilors had been women in that year. Women’s place in Bulgarian society has been influenced by quite a lot of cultures and ideologies, together with the Byzantine and Ottoman cultures, Eastern Orthodox Christianity, communist ideology, and contemporary globalized Western values. Foreign information and opposition web sites are blocked and worldwide social networks are often inaccessible.